Original title: Truck: The高速资讯 "Fire Wheel" on the battlefield
Russian BAZ-6402 traction vehicle
French GRIFFON multi -purpose armored vehicle
Czech T815-7 military truck.
Data Picture Picture: Yangming
In ancient Chinese mythology, Nezha's image of fire -fire guns and pedaling wind wheels was deeply rooted in people's hearts.Especially the wind and fire wheels can carry people and things, make people imagine.
In the weapon world, trucks play the role of the "wind wheel" in the battlefield.With the improvement of truck performance, its universality is becoming stronger and stronger, and it is increasingly valued by the army of various countries.
In the second half of last year, the Czech Army received three T815-7 military trucks from TATRA trucks. This was the last 3 of the 209 tactical trucks ordered by the Czech Ministry of Defense for the Army in 2022.
Not long ago, the three French companies delivered another group of GRIFFON multi -purpose armored vehicles and the "American Leopard" armored reconnaissance vehicle to the French General Administration, marking new progress in the country's "Scorpion Plan".It is worth noting that the chassis of these two types of armored vehicles is a vertical truck chassis, which reflects the "one fish eat more" ideas in the design and production of truck chassis.
At present, civilian trucks are transformed into military trucks, and the chassis of trucks to armored vehicles, radar vehicles, command vehicles, rocket artillery cars, air defense weapon traction vehicles and other special vehicles have become a trend.So why does truck have such potential?What are the past, present, and future of military trucks?Please see the relevant interpretation.
War traction, trucks become important transportation forces
After the second industrial revolution, a large number of mechanized weapons and equipment came out one after another, and war gradually moved towards the era of mechanization.
In 1886, German engineer Calbonz created the first car in human history and opened a new era in the history of transportation.However, early car performance was backward, even not as good as a carriage.Until the outbreak of the First World War, the short -distance capacity of the army of various countries rely on animal power to a fairly extent.
After the outbreak of the First World War, the increasing worsening battlefield environment highlighted the limitations of using animal power.Dragging on heavy equipment such as artillery in the mud, horses are becoming more and more difficult to compete.As a result, the truck began to enter the battlefield.
In the middle of the war, the British trucks have grown faster.At the beginning of the war, there were only dozens of trucks in the British army. At the end of World War I, the British army had nearly 60,000 trucks, and more than 700 truck models registered in the book.France, Germany, the United States and other countries have also developed a large number of trucks, which effectively improved the mobility and transportation power of the army.
However, during the beginning of the World War I was the early stage of the mechanized war, the war style also focused on the positions marked by 堑, machine guns, and wire mesh.Under this style of combat, the requirements of the military's mobility and transportation power of various countries are not very high.
In the Second World War, many army of the country participated in mechanization and motorization. Trucks became important transportation tools for most of the Warring States Periods. The scale of use was unprecedented.
Nazi Germany has developed the Krupp L2H43 light truck for transport and traction light -type anti -tank guns. The Bogvad B300A medium truck for personnel, material transportation and traction artillery is used for driving in complex terrain.Daoyz A300, Mercedes L4500R and other semi -track trucks, the Krupp L3H163, Mann ML4500A, Mercedes L4500A heavy trucks used to perform multiple transportation tasks, and the widely used Obely "Lightning"Trucks and so on.These trucks assumed the transportation task of the Germans' implementation of the materials required by the "lightning war" in the war, helping them to have the initiative of the battlefield.
The Soviet Union was equipped with 150,000 Gas-AA trucks before World War II.After the outbreak of World War II, the Soviet truck was lost.Due to metal shortage, in 1942, the Soviet Union began to produce a simplified version of Gas-MM trucks.The car uses the canvas cab, edges and corners, and canceled the rearview mirror and only brakes the rear wheels.These two types of trucks were trucks with the most equipment at that time. They were not only used for transportation, but also used to traction light artillery.
Due to the limited load of GAR -AA trucks, the Soviet Union has developed a Geis-5 truck with 3 tons for heavy transport transportation.
In addition to its national production, the Soviets also obtained some foreign trucks through the "Rental Act", such as the US-6 in the United States.The Ste Pantan US-6 is a three-axis truck equipped with a 95-horsepower six-cylinder engine. It uses a all-metal cockpit and can drive on a road with poor road conditions.The Soviets also used the car as the chassis to create equipment and other equipment such as the "Kazaka" rocket launcher.
In the early days of World War II, although the United States chose to maintain neutrality, the pace of manufacturing new large transport trucks, improving the military's maneuverability and logistics transportation capabilities did not stop.The more representative is the CCKW-353 military truck.This type of truck is good, sturdy, durable, and easy to repair. Later, many other improved models were derived.After the outbreak of the Pacific War, the car was produced in large quantities. Before the end of World War II, 800,000 vehicles had been produced.
During this period, military trucks were mainly based on transporting troops, materials and traction weapons, and the positioning of "important transportation forces on the battlefield" was established.
Constantly empowerment, from improving capacity to acting as "mount"
After World War II, military trucks continued to develop.Its role also gradually expanded from its original transportation to the battlefield to carry large loads and "mounts" as a weapon.During this period, the development of military trucks has the following characteristics:
Can run well, off -road ability is stronger.With the acceleration of the pace of war, it put forward higher requirements for the mobile transportation capacity of the army.In order to conform to changes, military trucks in various countries are "hard -looking" on land transportation.
Taking the 5000 heavy truck of Naweisida in the United States as an example, its maximum cargo capacity is 35 tons, with strong climbing, slope driving, deep groove leapfrogging and wading capabilities. The maximum road speed is about 90 kilometers/h, A cruising range of more than 450 kilometers.
Russia's BAZ-6402 traction vehicle is highly mobility, and the wading depth exceeds 1 meter.As a traction vehicle for semi-trailers for traction S-400 air defense missile systems, it can also be used as a semi-trailer for traction of air defense radar and other special equipment.
Start "pair" with more firepower.In this regard, wheel self -propelled howitzers, that is, truck guns, are more representative.Briefly speaking, the truck cannon is a fusion design to allow the traction grenades to be on the military truck chassis, so as to obtain a stronger and higher degree of automation artillery system.
In 1994, the first generation of "Caesar" launched by France, the second -generation "Caesar" developed after entering the 21st century, and the "archer" launched by Sweden are more representative modern truck guns.Taking the "archer" truck cannon as an example, its maximum rate of fire can reach 3 rounds.When the target is continuously fire within 25 kilometers, it can achieve more at the same time.When the target of 40 kilometers is turned on, the deviation does not exceed 12 meters.
In addition to truck guns, military trucks also "pair" with other heavy firepower.In August 2022, the British media disclosed that Britain designed a short -range air defense missile vehicle through the installation of Asraam's short -range infrared air defense missile launch station in the rear of the Supacat HMT truck.The car weighs 10.5 tons, the maximum driving speed of the road is 120 km/h, and the maximum driving mileage is 700 kilometers.
There are more and more other loads.Special cars with cranes, rescue vehicles with maintenance equipment, radar car & hellip; & hellip; with more load "boarding" truck chassis, "trucks are a basket, everything can be installed inside"Sentences are also given more new content.In May 2022, a Austrian company showed medium -sized rescue vehicles designed for the Austrian Army.This type of rescue vehicle takes off -road trucks as the chassis. One of the biggest features is "capable".In addition to the outside of the cab, it is not only equipped with hydraulic traction brackets, twisted, and loading ligaes, but also a storage warehouse with a valid load of 2 tons.From the characteristics of this type of rescue vehicle, it can be seen that the increasingly wide application prospects of military trucks can be seen.
Multi -dimensional development will be more deeply integrated into the modern battlefield
Future war confrontation will be more intense, and resource consumption will increase accordingly.With the development of military science and technology, the probability of military trucks will continue to develop multi -dimensional, and it will be more deeply integrated into the modern battlefield, which has undergone significant changes in the following aspects.
The performance of military trucks will be more advanced.There are many ways to improve the performance of military trucks, including improving power, improving capacity, and enhancing the concealment of action.It is said that the US Army has begun a project called "Hybrid Vehicle Test and Evaluation" to study the way military trucks transform from traditional power to new energy direction.Russia developed a series of vehicles represented by the Platform-O platform, which can draw a total of hundreds of tons of equipment, and the power is stronger.This series of vehicles use wheel motor as a driver unit. While improving the vehicle's maneuverability, it can drive more silently.At the same time, some countries are still studying and improving the tray -based transportation system of the overall self -installed and unloading transport vehicles. By rationalizing the use of standard trays or standard containers, they can improve the ability of military trucks to transport irregular goods.
Develop in the direction of unmanned and intelligent.Weapons are unmanned, and military trucks are no exception.The new -generation 155mm car grenade of the German Rhein Metal Corporation uses the newly developed HX3 10 × 10 -wheeled high -machine military heavy truck chassis to provide a good firing stability for artillery.The gun not only uses a new unmanned turret, but also equipped with a fully automatic ammunition loading system, but also achieves remote control guns. Accordingly, its truck chassis is also carried out.
In this regard, the United States also moves frequently.The country is currently unmanned transformation based on the M1074 A1 tray transportation system. It is trying to achieve the purpose of using the camera and radar required to add unmanned driving to achieve the purpose of transporting materials with unmanned teams.According to foreign media reports, Heroskota has been authorized to develop and produce unmanned transport vehicles.
The use of martial arts will be wider.You can pull larger and heavier materials, you can drive under worse road conditions, you can apply & hellip; & hellip; with the improvement of military truck performance, its future use of martial arts will become increasingmore.The practice of many countries shows that the truck chassis is becoming the "mount" of more weapons.In July 2022, Poland signed a contract to purchase 24 "Baobab-K (Baobab-K)" Bray car.This type of reet car adopts a 8 × 8 truck chassis with a combat weight of 31.7 tons and a wading depth of 1.2 meters. It is equipped with a central tire inflation system. It can be used under different terrain conditions. It can be loaded with 600 landmarks at one time. It can be set quickly in 22 minutes.complete.